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[Fair warning: This is another post about data-modeling and query languages, and it isn't likely to be the last. It may or may not be interesting to people with personal interests in those topics, but I think it's pretty unlikely to be interesting to people without those interests. You have been warned.]  

In data-modeling you usually live in fear of the word "usually". Accounting for the subsequent "but sometimes" is usually where a simple, manageable data-model starts its ugly metamorphosis towards tangled and unusable. Same with "mostly", "more often", "occasionally". Most data-modeling contexts are only really ever happy with "always" and "never"; and the real world is usually not so helpfully binary.  

DiscO, my data-model for discographies, notes that Tracks, Releases and Sequences can all have Artists, but that usually Tracks would get their Artist indirectly from their Release, which would in turn get it from its Sequence.  

What this means, in practical terms, is that when we're entering or importing data, we don't necessarily want to have to set Artist individually on every single Sequence, Release and Track. But when we're querying the data, we want to be able to ask about Artist on every one of those.  

Data-modeling people call this "inference", and it's a whole academic subject of its own, deeply entangled with abstract logic and belief-system consistency. The Sequence/Release/Track problem sounds theoretically straightforward at first, but gets very hard very quickly once you realize that some Releases are compilations of Tracks by multiple artists, and some Sequences have Releases by multiple artists. Thus it's not quite true that Sequence "contains" Release, and upon that "not quite" most academic approaches will founder and demand to be released from this vagueness via a rococo expansion of the domain model to separate the notions of Single-Artist and Multiple-Artist Sequences and Releases.  

But "usually" is a good concept. And for lots of real-world data problems it can be handled without flailing into existential abstraction. We can keep our model simple, and fill in the implied data with a very general mechanism: the relationships between "actual" values and "effective" values can themselves be described in queries.  

Releases, we said, may have Artists directly, or may get them implicitly from their Sequence. More specifically, we probably mean something like this:  

- If a Release has an Artist, directly, use that.
- If it doesn't, get all the Sequences in which it occurs.
- Ignore any Sequence that itself has no Artist or multiple Artists.
- If all the remaining (single-Artist) Sequences have the same Artist, use that.
- Otherwise we don't know.  

This can be written out in Thread in pretty much these exact steps:  


This isn't a syntax tutorial, but ";" means otherwise, and "::#=1" tests a list to see if it has exactly one entry, so maybe you can sort of see what the query is doing.  

A Track, then, follows the same pattern, but has to check one more level:  

- If a Track has an Artist, directly, use that.
- If it doesn't, get all the Releases in which it occurs.
- Ignore any Release that itself has no Artist or multiple Artists.
- If all the remaining (single-Artist) Releases have the same Artist, use that.
- Otherwise, get all the Sequences for all the Releases on which the track appears.
- Ignore any Sequence that itself has no Artist or multiple Artists.
- If all the remaining (single-Artist) Sequences have the same Artist, use that.
- Otherwise we don't know.  

Or, in Thread:  


In this system, once you've learned the query-language (and I'm not saying this is a trivial task, but it's not that hard), you can do most anything. The language with which you ask questions is the same language you use for stipulating answers.  

Query-language-geek postscript: And, of course, it's the same language you use for obsessively fiddling with your questions and answers because you just can't help it. That Track query has some redundancy, and while redundancy isn't always bad, it's almost always fun to see if you can get rid of it. In this case we're asking the same question ("What's your artist?") in all three steps of the query. We can rearrange it so that we get all the Tracks and Releases and Sequences first, then ask all the Artist questions at the end:  


"...__," may initially look a little like ants playing Limbo, but "...__,Release,Sequence" means "get these things, their Releases and their Sequences, and then add those things' Releases and Sequences, etc. until you get to the end. So this version of the query builds up the complete list of all the places from which this Track could derive its artist, keeps only the ones that have a single artist, and then sees if we're left with a single artist at the end of the whole process. Depending on what we want to do if our data has internal contradictions, this might actually be functionally better than the first version, not just shorter to type.  

But DiscO also has all that stuff about Original Versions, and it would be nice if our Artist inference used that information, too. If Past Masters [Remastered] is an alternate version of Past Masters, Vol. 1 & 2, and Past Masters, Vol. 1 & 2 belongs to the Beatles' Compilations sequence, then we should be able to deduce that the version of "We Can Work It Out" on Past Masters [Remastered] is by the Beatles. Our experimental elimination of redundancy now pays off a little bit, because we only have to add in "Original Version" in one place:  

Track|Artist=(...__,Release,Sequence,Original Version:(.Artist::#=1).Artist::#=1)

And interestingly, since both Tracks and Releases can have Original Versions, this whole thing actually works for either type, and thus we can combine the two and have even fewer things to worry about:  

Track,Release|Artist=(...__,Release,Sequence,Original Version:(.Artist::#=1).Artist::#=1)

Having fewer things to worry about is (usually) good.
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